DECEMBER 12, 2018



Write to Bruce if you want copies of articles you cannot get that are not available on this site. Also see publications by students and postdocs 

Balaban, N. Q., S. Helaine, K. Lewis, M. Ackermann, B. Aldridge, D. I. Andersson, M. P. Brynildsen, D. Bumann, A. Camilli, J. J. Collins, C. Dehio, S. Fortune, J. M. Ghigo, W. D. Hardt, A. Harms, M. Heinemann, D. T. Hung, U. Jenal, B. R. Levin, J. Michiels, G. Storz, M. W. Tan, T. Tenson, L. Van Melderen and A. Zinkernagel (2019). "Definitions and guidelines for research on antibiotic persistence." Nat Rev Microbiol. April 12, 2019 PDF

Dickey, J and V. Perrot (2019) Adjunct phage treatment enhances the effectiveness of low antibiotic concentration against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms in vitro. PLoS One 14(1) e0209390 PDF

Gurney, J.G. M. Pleška, B.R. Levin (2019)  Why Put-Up with Immunity when there is Resistance: An Excursion into the Population and Evolutionary Dynamics of Restriction–Modification and CRISPR-Cas Ph. Trans. Royal Soc. B. (In Press, we believe)  

Hervé N, K. Hjort, B.R. Levin, D.I. Andersson (2019) The high prevalence of heterogeneity in antibiotic resistance (heteroresistance) in pathogenic bacteria is mainly caused by gene amplification.  Nature Microbiology (In Press)

Chaudhry WN, Pleska M, Shah NN, Weiss H, McCall IC, Meyer JR, Gupta A, Guet CC, Levin BR. (2018) Leaky resistance and the conditions for the existence of lytic bacteriophage. PLoS Biol 16:e2005971.

Dewan KK, Skarlupka AL, Rivera I, Cuff LE, Gestal MC, Taylor-Mulneix DL, Wagner S, Ryman VE, Rodriguez C, Hamidou Soumana I, Levin BR, Harvill ET (2018) Development of macrolide resistance in Bordetella bronchiseptica is associated with the loss of virulence. J Antimicrob Chemother doi:10.1093/jac/dky264.

Weissman, J. R. Holmes, R. Barrangou, S. Moineau, W. Fagan, and B.R. Levin, Johnson, P., J (2018)  Immune loss as a driver of coexistence during host-phage coevolution. ISME, 2018: p. 1-13.

Pleška, M. D Refardt , B. Levin , M. Lang, C. Guet (2018) Phage-host population dynamics promotes prophage acquisition in bacteria with innate immunity. Nat Ecol Evol, 2018. 2(2): p. 359-366.

Levin, B.R., F. Baquero, P. Ankomah, I.C.McCall (2017) Phagocytes, antibiotics and self-limiting bacterial infections. Trends in Microbiology. 25:878-892

Wu, X., N.T.Jacobs , C.A. Bozio, P. Palm, S.M. Lattar, Lattar, C.R Hanke, D.M.Watson, D. M., F, Sakai , Levin, B.,R. Klugman, and J.E. Vidal (2017). Competitive Dominance within Biofilm Consortia Regulate the Relative Distribution of Pneumococcal Nasopharyngeal Density. Applied and EnvironmentalMicrobiology.83(16). pii: e00953-17. doi: 10.1128/AEM.00953-17.

Shao, X, B. R. Levin and I. Nemenman (2017) Single variant bottleneck in the early dynamics of bacteremia in neonatal rats questions the theory of independent action. Physical Biology. 14: 045004

Rook, G, F. Bäckhed, B. Levin, M. McFall-Ngai, A. McLean (expected 2017 Evolution, human-microbe interactions and life history plasticity. The Lancet 390: 521-530

Shao, X., A. Mugler, J. Kim, H.J. Jeong, B.R. Levin, I. Nemenman (2017) Growth of bacteria in 3-d Colonies. PLoS Computational Biology 13(7) e1005679

Levin, B.R., F. Baquero, P. Ankomah, I.C.McCall (2017) Phagocytes, antibiotics and self-limiting bacterial infections. Trends in Microbiology. 25:878-892

Chaudhry, W.N, J. Concepcio-Acevedo, T. Park, S. Andleeb, J.J. Bull, B.R. Levin (2017) Synergy and order effects of antibiotics and phage in killing Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms.  PLoS ONE DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0168615

Levin, B.R., I.C. McCall, V. Perrot, H. Weiss,A. Ovespian, F. Baquero (2017) A Numbers Game: Ribosome Densities, Bacterial Growth, and Antibiotic-Mediated Stasis and Death, mBIO 8 (1) e02253-16 

 Concepcion-Acevedo, J., H. N. Weiss, W.N. Chadudhry, amd B.R.Levin 2015. Malthusian parameters as estimators of the fitness of microbes.  A cautionary tale about the low side of high throughput.  PLoS One Vol.10: Issue 6: e0126915 [PDF] 

Levin, B.R. J. Concepcion Acevedo, K. Udekwu 2014.  Persistence: a copacetic and parsimonous hypothesis for non-inherited resistance to antibiotics.  Current Opinion in Microbiology 21: 18-21 [PDF]

Levin, B.R., F. Baquero, P.J. Johnsen 2014. A model-guided analysis and perspective on the evolution and epidemiology of anitbiotic resistance and its future.  Current Opinion in Microbiology 19: 83 - 89 [PDF]

Ankomah, P. B.R. Levin 2014.  Exploring the collaboration between antibiotics and the immune response in the treatment of acute, self-limiting infections. PNAS 111:8331-8338  [PDF]  

Bull, J.J. C. S.Vegge, M. Schmerer, WN Chaudhry, BR Levin. 2014.  Phenotypic resistance and the dynamics of bacterial escape from phage control.  PLoS One April 2014 | Volume 9 | Issue 4 | e94690[PDF]

Jiang W, Maniv I, Arain F, Wang Y, Levin BR, et al. (2013) Dealing with the Evolutionary Downside of CRISPR Immunity: Bacteria and Beneficial Plasmids. PLoS Genet 9(9): e1003844. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.100384 [PDF]

Turrientes, MC Levin, BR, Martínez,JL, Ripoll, A, Baquero, MR Rodríguez-Domínguez,M, González-Alba, JM, Cantón,R,  Baquero, F. and Galán, JC, 2013,  Emergence of Normo-Mutable Variants from a Escherichia coliMutator Clinical Strain During a Long-Term Serial Passages Experiment PLoS One: Volume 8 | Issue 9 | e72963[PDF]

Ankomah, P, P.T.Johnson and B. R. Levin (2013) The Pharmaco –, Population and Evolutionary Dynamics of Multi-Drug Therapy Experiments with S. aureus and E. coli and Computer Simulations In Press PLoS Pathogens  [PDF]

Levin, B.R., S. Moineau, M. Bushman, R. Barrangou (2013) The population and evolutionary dynamics of phage and bacteria with CRISPR-mediated immunity.  PLoS Genetics 9: 3 e1003312 [PDF]

Johnson, P.J.T. and B.R. Levin (2013) Pharmacodynamics, population dynamics and the evolution of persistence in Staphyloccus aureus.  PLoS Genetics Vol 9, Issue 1, e1003123 [PDF]

Kirby, A.E (2013) Synergistic action of gentamicin and bacteriophage in a continuous culture population of Staphyloccus aureus.  PLoS One Vol. 7, Issue 11, e51057 [PDF]                  

Kirby, A.E., K. Garner and B.R. Levin (2012) The relative contributions of physical structure and cell density to the antibiotic susceptibility of bacteria in bioflims.  Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 56(6) 2867-2975[PDF]

Chien, Y-W, B.R. Levin and K. Klugman (2012) The anticipated severity of a "1918-like" influenza pandemic in contemporary populations:  the contribution of antibacterial interventions [PDF]

Ankomah, P and B. R. Levin (2012) Two-drug antimicrobial chemotherapy: A mathematical model and experiments with Mycobacterium marinum.  Plos Pathogens 8: 1 e1002487 [PDF]

Wei, Y. A, Kirby and B.R. Levin (2011) The population and evolutionary dynamics of Vibrio cholerae and its bacteriophage: conditions for maintining phage-limited communities Amer, Natur. 178:715-725.

Wei, Y, Z. Wang, J. Liu, I. Nemenman,   A.H. Singh, H. Weiss and B.R. Levin (2011) The population dynamics of bacteria in physically structured habitats and the adaptive virtue of random motility. PNAS 108:4047-4052 [PDF]

Levin, B.R. (2011) Population geneticists discover bacteria and their genetic/molecular epidemiology.  IN Population Genetics of Bacteria:  A Tribute to Thomas S. Whittam, S.T. Walk and P.C. Fang Editors.  ASM Press  [PDF]

Garner, K. P. Ankomah, A. Kirby, and B. R. Levin 2010 Antibiotic susceptibility of physically structured populations of bacteria. ICAAC Poster [PDF] 

Haber, M. B.R. Levin and P. Kramarz (2010) Antibiotic control of antibiotic resistance in hospitals: A simulation study. BMC Infectious Diseases  10:254 [PDF]

Levin, B.R. (2010) Nasty viruses, costly plasmids, population dynamics and the conditions for maintaining CRISPR-mediated adaptive immunity in bacteria.  PLoS Genetics 10:6 E1001171 [PDF]

Wei, Y, P. Ocampo and B. R. Levin (2010) An Experimental study of the population and evolutionary dynamics of vibrio cholerae O1 and the Bacteriophage JSF4. Proc. Royal Soc. Lond. B On Line [PDF]

Levin, B.R. and K. Udekwu (2010) The population dynamics of antibiotic treatment:  a mathematical model and hypotheses for time-Kill and continuous culture experiments. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 54(8): 3414-3426 [PDF]

Margolis, E. A. Yates, and B.R. Levin (2010) The ecology of nasal colonization of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus: the role of competition and interactions with host's immune response.  BMC Microbiology 2010, 10:59 doi:10.1186/1471-2180-10-59 [PDF]

Cornejo OE, McGee, L. and DE Rozen (2010).   Polymorphic competence peptides does not restrict recombination in Streptococcus pneumoniae.  Molecular Biology and Evolution 27(3): 694-702. [PDF] [Supplementary Online Materials]

Johnsen, P.J and B.R. Levin (2010) Adjusting to alien genes.  Molecular Microbiology On Line [PDF]

Levin, B.R. and O.E. Cornejo (2009) The population and evolutionary dynamics of homologous gene recombination in bacteria. PLoS Genetics 5 (8) e1000601 [PDF]

Johnsen, P.J, D. Dubnau, and B. R. Levin (2009) Episodic Selection and the Maintenance of Competence and Natural Transformation in Bacillus subtilis  GENETICS  181: 1521-1533 [PDF]

 Udekwu, K,  N. Parrish, P. Ankomah, , F. Baquero and BR Levin (2009) Functional Relationship Between Cell Density and the Efficacy of Antibiotics. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 63:745-767 [PDF]

Handel, A, E. Margolis and B.R. Levin (2008) Exploring the role of the immune response in preventing antibiotic resistance Journal of Theoretical Biology 256:666-662 [PDF]

Margolis, E. (2009) Hydrogen peroxide mediated interference competition by Streptococcus pneumoniae has no significant effect on Staphylococcal nasal colonization of neonatal rats J. Bact. 191: 571-575 [PDF]

Cornejo, O.E., D. Rozen, R.M. May and B.R. Levin (2008) Oscillations in continuous culture populations ofStreptococcus pneumoniae: Population dynamics and the evolution of clonal suicide  (Proceeding Royal Society B, 276: 999-1008  [PDF] [Supplemental On Line Material]

Margolis, E. and B. R. Levin (2008) The evolution of bacteria-host interactions: virulence and the immune over-response. IN “ Introduction to the Evolutionary Biology of Bacterial and Fungal Pathogens ” J-A. Gutteriez and F.M. Baquero Editors (ASM Press)  [PDF] Also published in "Microbial Evoiution and Co-Adaptation: A Tribute to the Life and Scientific Legacies of Joshua Lederberg (2009) P. 137:157 (  For the whole Pathogen Evolution Chapter [PDF]

Lemonnier, M; B.R. Levin, T. Romeo, K. Garner, M-R Baquero, J. Mercante, E. Lemichez F. Baquero, J. Blázquez 2008 Evolution of contact-dependent inhibition in non-growing populations of E. coli Proc. Royal Soc. B. 275:3-10[PDF] [Supplemental On Line Material]

Levin, B.R. 2007 Plagues and people meet the microbe hunters. Book Review, Nature Medicine 13: 239.[PDF]

Margolis, E. and B.R. Levin 2007 Within–Host Evolution for the Invasiveness of Commensal Bacteria: an experimental study of bacteremias resulting from Haemophilus influenzaenasal carriage, Journal of Infectious Disease 175: 1069-1075.[PDF]

Meltz-Steinberg, K. and B.R. Levin 2007 Grazing protozoa and the evolution of the Escherichia coli O157:H7 Shiga toxin-encoding prophage. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B Series (Biology) 274: 1921 - 1929.[PDF]

Rozen, D. E. L.E. McGee, B.R. Levin and K. P. Klugman 2007 .The fitness costs of fluoroquinolone resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemo Therapy 51:412-416.[PDF]

Lipsitch, M., T. Cohen, M. Murray, B.R. Levin 2007 Antiviral resistance and the control of pandemic influenza. PLoS Med 41: e15.[PDF]

Levin, B.R. and D.E. Rozen 2006 Non-inherited antibiotic resistance. Nature Reviews Microbiology 4: 556 - 562.[PDF]

Jensen, M. S. Faruque, J.J. Mekalanos B. R. Levin 2006, Modeling the role of bacteriophage in the control of cholera outbreaks Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. US103:4652-4657 [PDF]

Klugman, K.P. and B.R. Levin 2006 One Enzyme inactivates two antibiotics. Nature Medicine 12(1): 19 - 20.[PDF]

Wiuff, C., Zappala, R.M., Regoes, R.R., Garner, K.N., Baquero, F., and B.R. Levin 2005 Phenotypic Tolerance: Antibiotic Enrichment of Noninherited Resistance in Bacterial Populations. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 49(4): 1483-1494. [PDF]

Levin, B.R. 2004 Non Inherited Resistance to Antibiotics. Science 305: 1578-1579.[PDF]

A. Olivier, B. R. Levin, F. Baquero, and J. Blázquez 2004 Hypermutation and the Pre-Existence of Antibiotic Resistance in Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infections: Implications for Susceptibility Testing and Treatment.  Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy [PDF]

Regoes, R., C. Wiuff, R. Zappala, K.N. Garner, F. Baquero and B.R. Levin 2004 Pharmacodynamic functions: a multi-parameter approach to the design of antibiotic treatment regimens.  Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 45: 3670-3676: [PDF]

Levin, B. R. and M. J. M. Bonten 2004 Cycling may be bad for your health.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences US 101: 13101-13102 [PDF]

Levin, B. R. (2004) Non-Inherited resistance to antibiotics Science 305: 1578-1579 [PDF]

Levin, B. R. and J.J. Bull (2004) Population and evolutionary dynamics of phage therapy Nature Reviews Microbiology 2:: 166-173 [PDF]

Ancel Meyers, L., B. R. Levin, A. R. Richardson, and I. Stojiljkovic. 2003. Epidemiology, hypermutation, within-host evolution and the virulence of Neisseria meningitidis. Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B 270: 1667-1677. [PDF]

Tanaka, M. M., C. T. Bergstrom, and B. R. Levin. 2003. The evolution of mutator genes in bacterial populations: the role of environmental change and timing. Genetics 164: 843-854. [PDF]

Bull, J. J., B. R. Levin, T. DeRouin, N. Walker, and C. Bloch. 2002. Dynamics of success and failure inphage and antibiotic therapy in experimental infections. BMC Microbiol. 2: 35. [PDF]

Lipsitch, M., R. S. Singer, and B. R. Levin. 2002. Antibiotics in agriculture: when is it time to close the barn door? PNAS 99: 5752-5754. [PDF]

Woolhouse, M. E., J. P. Webster, E. Domingo, B. Charlesworth, and B. R. Levin. 2002. Biological and biomedical implications of the co-evolution of pathogens and their hosts. Nat. Genet. 32: 569-577. [PDF]

Levin, B.R 2001. Models for the spread of resistant pathogens. Netherlands Journal of Medicine 60: S58-S64.

Levin, B. R., J. J. Bull, and F. M. Stewart. 2001. Epidemiology, evolution, and future of the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Emerging Infect. Dis. 7: 505-511. [PDF]

Levin.B. R 2001. Minimizing potential resistance: a population dynamics view. Clin. Infect. Dis. 33: S161-S169. [PDF]

Levin.B. R. 2001. How can we predict the ecological impact of an antimicrobial: the opinions of a population and evolutionary biologist. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 7: 24-28.

Levin, B. and R. Antia. 2001. Why we don't get sick: The within-host population dynamics of bacterial infections. Science 292: 1112-1115. [PDF]

Lipsitch, M., T. H. Bacon, J. J. Leary, and B. R. Levin. 2000. Effects of antiviral usage on transmission dynamics of herpes simplex virus type 1 and on antiviral resistance: Predictions of mathematical models. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 44: 2824-2835. [PDF]

Negri, M.-C., M. Lipsitch, J. Blazquez, B. R. Levin, and F. Baquero. 2000. Concentration dependent selection of small phenotypic differences in TEM beta lactamase mediated antibiotic resistance. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 44: 2485-2491. [PDF]

Bergstrom, C. T., M. Lipsitch, and B. R. Levin. 2000. Natural selection, infectious transfer and the existence conditions for bacterial plasmids. Genetics 155: 1505-1519. [PDF]

Levin, B. R., and C. T. Bergstrom. 2000. Bacteria are different: Observations, interpretations, speculations, and opinions about the mechanisms of adaptive evolution in prokaryotes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 97: 6981-6985. [PDF]

B. R. Levin, V. Perrot, and N. Walker. 2000. Compensatory mutations, antibiotic resistance and the population genetics of adaptive evolution in bacteria. Genetics 154: 985-997. [PDF]

Lipsitch, M., C. T. Bergstrom, and B.R. Levin. 2000. The epidemiology of antibiotic resistance in hospitals: Paradoxes and prescriptions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 97: 1938-1943. [PDF]

Andersson, D.A., and B.R. Levin. 1999. The biological cost of antibiotic resistance. Current Opinion in Microbiology 2: 487-491. [PDF]

Levin, B.R. 1999. Mathematical models of the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance. 6th Maurice Rapin Colloquium.

Levin, B.R., M. Lipsitch, and S. Bonhoeffer. 1999. Population biology, evolution, and infectious disease: Convergence and synthesis. Science 283: 806-809. [PDF]

Levin, B.R. 1999. The population genetics of antibiotic resistance. In Evolutionary Genetics From Molecules to Morphology. Singh and Krimbas, Eds. Cambridge University Press.

Levin, B.R. 1998. Drug resistance: we may not be able to go back again. In New and Resurgent Infections: Prediction, Detection and Management of Tomorrow's Epidemics. B. Greenwood and K. deCock, Eds. John Wiley and Sons: Sussex, UK.

Levin, B.R., and R.M. Anderson. 1998. The population biology of anti-infective chemotherapy and the evolution of drug resistance: More questions than answers. In Evolution in Health and Disease. S. Stearns, Ed. Oxford University Press.

Stewart, F.M., R. Antia, B.R. Levin, M. Lipsitch and J. Mittler. 1998. The population genetics of antibiotic resistance II: analytical theory for sustained populations of bacteria in a community of hosts. Theoretical Population Biology 53: 152-165.[PDF]

Lipsitch, M., and B.R. Levin. 1998. The population dynamics of tuberculosis chemotherapy: on the role of bacterial population heterogeneity in the evolution of antibiotic resistance. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 2: 187-199.

Levin, B.R., R. Antia, E. Berliner, P. Bloland, S. Bonhoeffer, M. Cohen, T. DeRouin, P.I. Fields, H. Jafari, D. Jernigan, M. Lipsitch, J. McGowan Jr., P. Mead, M. Nowak, T. Porco, P. Sykora, L. Simonsen, J. Spitznagel, R. Tauxe, and F. Tenover. 1998. Resistance to Antimicrobial Chemotherapy: A Prescription for Research and Action. American Journal of Medical Sciences 315: 87-94.

Bonhoeffer, S., M. Lipsitch, and B. R. Levin. 1997. Evaluating treatment protocols to prevent resistance. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 94: 12106-12111. [PDF]

Schrag, S., V. Perrot, and B.R. Levin. 1997. Adaptation to the fitness cost of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences 264: 1287-1291.

Lipsitch, M., and B.R. Levin. 1997. The within-host population dynamics of anti-bacterial chemotherapy: conditions for the evolution of resistance. In CIBA Foundation Symposium 207 John Wiley and Sons: New York.

Lipsitch, M., and B.R. Levin. 1997. The population dynamics of antimicrobial chemotherapy. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 41: 363-373. [PDF]

Levin, B.R., M. Lipsitch, V. Perrot, S. Schrag, R. Antia, L. Simonsen, N. Moore, and F.M. Stewart. 1997. The Population Genetics of Antibiotic Resistance. Clinical Infectious Diseases24: S9-S16.

Levin, B.R., and R.V. Tauxe. 1996. Cholera: Nice bacteria and bad viruses. Current Biology 6: 1389-1391.

Mittler, J.E., B.R. Levin, and R. Antia. 1996. T-cell homeostasis, competition and drift: AIDS, HIV-accelerated senescence of the immune repertoire. Journal of AIDS and Human Retrovirology 12: 233-248.

Levin, B.R. 1996. The evolution and maintenance of virulence in microparasites. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2: 93-102. [PDF]

Levin, B. R., and J.J. Bull. 1996. Phage therapy revisited: the population biology of a bacterial infection and its treatment with bacteriophage and antibiotics. American Naturalist147: 881-898.

Levin, B.R., J.J. Bull, and F.M. Stewart. 1996. The intrinsic rate of increase of HIV/AIDS: Epidemiological and evolutionary implications. Mathematical Biosciences 132: 69-96.

Mittler, J., R. Antia, and B.R. Levin. 1995. Population Dynamics of HIV Pathogenesis. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 10: 224-227.

Levin, B.R. 1994. Conditions for the evolution of multiple antibiotic resistance plasmids: A theoretical and experimental excursion. In Population Genetics of Bacteria. S. Baumberg, J.P.W. Young, S.R. Saunders and E.M.H. Wellington, Eds. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK.

Antia, R., B.R. Levin and R.M. May. 1994. Within-host population dynamics and the evolution and maintenance of microparasite virulence. American Naturalist 144: 457-472.

Levin, B.R. and J.J. Bull. 1994. Short-sighted evolution and the virulence of pathogenic microorganisms. Trends in Microbiology 2: 76-81.

Levin, B.R. 1993. The accessory genetic elements of bacteria: existence conditions and (Co)Evolution. Current Opinion in Genetics and Development 3: 849-854.

Antia, R., J.C. Koella, B.R. Levin, G.P. Garnett and R.M. Anderson, 1993. Parasite Evolution in Response to Immunological Defences. In Oxford Surveys in Evolutionary Biology, Vol 9. D. Futuyma and J. Antonovics, Eds. Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK.

Korona, R. and B.R. Levin. 1993. Sensitivity of naturally occuring coliphages to type I and type II restriction and modification. Journal of General Microbiology 139: 1283-1290.

Levin, B.R. 1993. The maintenance of genetic variation in bacterial populations. In The Genetics of Cellular, Individual, Family and Population Variability C.F. Sing and C.L. Hanis, Eds. Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK.

Korona, R. and B.R. Levin. 1993. Phage-Mediated Selection for Restriction-Modification. Evolution 47: 565-575.

Young, J.P.W. and B.R. Levin. 1993. Adaptation in bacteria: unanswered ecological and evolutionary questions about well-studied molecules. In Genes in Ecology. R.L. Berry, T.J. Crawford, and G.M. Hewitt, Eds. Blackwell Scientific Publications: London, UK.

Levin, B.R. 1992. DNA technology and the release of genetically engineered organisms. In Conservation of Genetic Resources for Sustainable Development. O.T. Sandlund, K. Hindar and A.D.H. Brown, Eds. Scandinavian University Press.

Levin, B.R. 1992. Evolution and the future of AIDS. In AIDS: the Modern Plague. B. Wallace, Ed. Symposium of Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University: Presidential Symposium II.

Levin, B.R. 1992. Microbial Ecology and Population Biology. Symposium on the Environmental Edge of My Profession, Danish Academy of Technical Services.

Levin, B.R., R. Antia and L. Simonsen. 1991. AIDS as a population-dynamic - evolutionary process. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 6: 237-239.

Antia, R, B.R. Levin and P. Williamson. 1991. A quantitative model suggests immunological memory involves the colocalization of B and T cells. Journal of Theoretical Biology 153: 371-384.

Simonsen, L., D.M. Gordon, F.M. Stewart and B.R. Levin. 1990. Estimating the rate of plasmid transfer: an endpoint method. Journal of General Microbiology 136: 2319-2325.

Levin, B.R. and C. Svanborg Eden. 1990. Selection and the evolution of virulence in bacteria: an ecumenical excursion and modest suggestion. Parasitology 100: S103-S115.

Svanborg Eden, C. and B.R. Levin. 1990. Infectious disease and evolution in human populations: A critical Reexamination. In Disease and Populations in Transition: Anthropological and Epidemiological Pespectives. A. Swedlund and G. Armelagos, Eds. Bergan and Garby Press: South Hadley, MA.

Condit, R. and B.R. Levin. 1990. The evolution of antibiotic resistance plasmids: The role of segregation, transposition and homologous recombination. American Naturalist 135: 573-596.

Stewart, F.M., D.M. Gordon and B.R. Levin. 1990. Fluctuation analysis: The probability distribution of the number of mutants under different conditions. Genetics 124: 175-185.

Simonsen, L. and B.R. Levin. 1988. Assessing the risks of releasing genetically engineered organisms. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 3: S27-S30.

Levin, B.R. 1988. Frequency dependent selection in bacteria. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B 319: 549-472.

Condit, R., F.M. Stewart and B.R. Levin. 1988. The population biology of transposons: a priori conditions for maintenance as parasitic DNA. American Naturalist 132: 129-147.

Levin, B.R. 1987. The Evolution of Sex in Bacteria. In The Evolution of Sex: A Critical Review of Current Ideas. R. Michod and B.R. Levin, eds. Sinauer Associates: Sunderland, MA.

Michod, R. and B.R. Levin, Eds. 1987. The Evolution of Sex: A Critical Review of Current Ideas. Sinauer Associates: Sunderland, MA.

Levin, B.R. 1986. The maintenance of plasmids and transposons in natural populations of bacteria. In Antibiotic Resistance Genes: Ecology, Transfer and Expression. R. Novick and S. Levy, eds. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press: Cold Spring Harbor, NY.

Porras, O., D.A. Caugant, B. Gray, T. Lagerard, B.R. Levin and C. Svanborg Eden. 1986. Difference in Structure between type b and nontypable Haemophilus influenzae populations. Infection and Immunity 53: 79-89.

Lundquist, P.A. and B.R. Levin. 1986. Transitory derepression and the maintenance of conjugative plasmids. Genetics 113: 483-497.

Levin, B.R. 1986. Restriction-modification and the maintenance of genetic diversity in bacterial populations. In Proceedings Conference on Evolutionary Processes and Theory. E. Nevo and S. Karlin, eds. Academic Press: New York.

Lenski, R.E. and B.R. Levin. 1985. Constraints on the coevolution of bacteria and virulent phage: A model, some experiments and predictions for natural communities. American Naturalist 125: 585-602.

Levin, B.R. and R.E. Lenski. 1985. Bacteria and phage: A model system for the study of the ecology and co-evolution of hosts and parasites. In Ecology and Genetics of Host-Parasite Interactions. D. Rollison and R. M. Anderson, eds. Academic Press.

Caugant, D.A., B.R. Levin, I. ÿrskov, F. ÿrskov, C. Svanborg Eden, and R.K. Selander. 1985. Genetic diversity in relation to seroptype in Escherichia coliInfection and Immunity ?: 407-413.

Levin, B.R. 1984. Changing views of the hazards of recombinant DNA manipulation and the regulation of these procedures. In Proceedings of the Vth International Symposium on the Transfer of Antibiotic Resistance. V. Krcmry, ed. Avicenum: Prague. Republished in the Recombinant DNA Research Bulletin of the NIH.

Caugant, D.A., B.R. Levin and R.K. Selander. 1984. The distribution of multilocus genotypes of Escherichia coli within and between host families. J. Hyg. Camb. 92: 377-384.

Levin, B.R. 1984. Science as a way of knowing - molecular evolution. Amer. Zool. 24: 541-564.

Stewart, F.M. and B.R. Levin. 1984. The population biology of bacterial viruses: Why be temperate? Theoretical Population Biology 26: 93-117.

Caugant, D.A., B.R. Levin, G. Linden-Janson, T.S. Whittam, C. Svanborg Eden, and R.K. Selander. 1983. Genetic diversity and the relationships among strains of Escherichia coli in the intestines and those causing urinary tract infections. Prog. in Allergy33: 203-207.

Levin, B.R. and R.E. Lenski. 1983. Coevolution in bacteria and their viruses and plasmids. In Coevolution. D.J. Futuyma and M. Slatkin, eds. Sinauer Associates: Sunderland, MA.

Levin, B.R., A.C. Allison, H.J. Bremmermann, B.C. Clarke, R. Frentzel-Beyme, W.D. Hamilton, S.A. Levin, R.M. May, and H.R. Thieme. 1982. Evolution of parasites and hosts (group report). In Population Biology of Infectious Diseases. R.M. Anderson and R.M. May, eds. Dalham Konferenzen. Springer Verlag: Heidleberg.

Levin, B.R. 1981. Periodic selection, infectious gene exchange and the genetic structure of Escherichia coli populations. Genetics 99: 1-23.

Caugant, D.A., B.R. Levin, and R.K. Selander. 1981. Genetic diversity and temporal variation in the E. coli populations of a human host. Genetics 98: 467-490.

Chao, L. and B.R. Levin. 1981. Structured habitats and the evolution of anticompetitor toxins in bacteria. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 78: 6324-6328.

Levin, B.R., and V.A. Rice. 1981. The kinetics of transfer of nonconjugative plasmids by mobilizing conjugative factors. Genet. Res., Camb. 35:241-259.

Levin, B.R. 1980. Conditions for the existence of R-plasmids in bacterial populations. In IV International Symposium on Antibiotic Resistance. S. Mitsuhashi, L. Rosival and V. Krcmery, eds. Aviceum Prague, Springer-Verlag: Berlin.

Selander, R.K. and B.R. Levin. 1980. Genetic diversity and structure in populations of Escherichia coliScience 210: 545-547.

Levin, B. R., F. M. Stewart, and V. A. Rice. 1979. The kinetics of conjugative plasmid transmission: fit of a simple mass action model. Plasmid 2:247-260.

Levin, B. R. 1978. Assessing the likelihood of contaminating natural populations of bacteria with chimeric plasmids. Journal of Infectious Diseases 137:691-693.

Chao, L., B. R. Levin, and F. M. Stewart. 1977. A complex community in a simple habitat: an experimental study with bacteria and phage. Ecology 58:369-378.

Levin, B. R., F. M. Stewart, and L. Chao. 1977. Resource - limited growth, competition , and predation: a model and experimental studies with bacteria and bacteriophage. American Naturalist 977:3-24.

Stewart. F. M. and B.R. Levin, B. R. 1977. The population biology of bacterial plasmids: a priori conditions for the existence of conjugationally transmitted factors. Genetics 87:209-228.

Levin, B. R., and F. M. Stewart. 1977. Probability of establishing chimeric plasmids in natural populations of bacteria. Science 196:218-220.

Levin, B. R., and W. L. Kilmer. 1975. Interdemic selection and the evolution of altruism: a computer simulation study. Evolution 28:527-545.

Stewart, F. M., and B. R. Levin. 1973. Resource partitioning and the outcome of interspecific competition: a model and some general considerations. American Naturalist 107:171-198.

Levin, B. R. 1972. Coexistence of two asexual strains on a single resource. Science 175:1272-1274.

Levin, B. 1972. The operation of selection in situations of interspecific competition. Evolution 25:249-264.

Levin, B. R., M. L. Petras, and D. I. Rasmussen. 1969. The effect of migration on the maintenance of a lehal polymorphism in the house mouse. American Naturalist 103:647-661.

Levin, B. R. 1969, Simulation of genetic systems. N. Morton, ed. International Conference on Computer Applications in Genetics:38 - 46.

Levin, B. R. 1969. A model for selection in systems of species competition, Pages 237-273 in F. Heinmets, ed. Concepts and Models in Biomathematics. New York, M Dekker.

Levin, B. R. 1967. The effect of reproductive compensation on the long term maintenance of the Rh polymorphism: the Rh crossroad revisited. American Journal of Human Genetics 19:Suppl 19:288

Schull, W. J., and B. R. Levin. 1964, Monte Carlo simulation: some uses in the genetic study of primitive man. J. Gurland, ed. Stochastic Models in Medicine and Biology:179-197


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